The scramble to secure America’s voting machines

The U.S. faces a voting security crisis.

Tens of millions of Americans vote in counties and states that use paperless voting machines — devices that security experts say can be undetectably hacked and offer no way to audit the results when errors occur. Russia’s election interference in 2016 has spurred new demands for state and local governments to switch to machines that produce a paper record of every vote.

But fixing this problem won’t happen quickly.

Many election officials have been slow to buy paper-based machines, due either to a lack of money or to disbelief in the experts’ warnings. In D.C., lawmakers are split along party lines over whether to require states to use paper. And in many states, no central authority decides what voting equipment to buy, leaving the purchases up to local governments.

Meanwhile, national security and intelligence officials warn that future elections remain targets for hackers — and that Russia will be back.

During the 2018 election, all voters in 36 states and D.C. cast ballots on machines that produced some form of paper record.

Even there, though, some machines were more secure than others. Some of these states used only fully paper-based machines, including the hand-marked and machine-scanned paper ballots that security experts consider the gold standard. Other states used a combination of those machines and originally paperless machines that had been upgraded with printers.

These 14 states used paperless machines in 2018.

These states represent the heart of the concern over insecure voting technology — places where at least some people cast ballots in 2018 on devices that produced no paper vote trail. They include Pennsylvania, a swing state that played a crucial role in Donald Trump’s victory.

Some of those states have fully or partially switched to paper-based voting since then.

Jurisdictions in light green have completed the process of replacing old machines — they say they have fully deployed new equipment since POLITICO started tracking them in March. Counties in dark green were already using paper before then but are in states that were fully or partially paperless in 2018.

Some localities have started replacing their paperless machines.

These jurisdictions have taken at least one concrete step toward that goal. POLITICO identified five major steps: setting a deadline, acquiring funding, soliciting proposals from vendors, selecting a new machine and purchasing the equipment.

Others plan to replace their machines.

These jurisdictions have not yet started the process but have told POLITICO that they plan on upgrading.

Many others either don’t plan to replace all their paperless machines or haven’t responded to POLITICO’s questions about their plans.

The majority of jurisdictions POLITICO is tracking fall into this category. Oklahoma, for instance, mainly uses paper-based systems but says it has no plans to replace the paperless machines available to voters with disabilities. Any machine that doesn’t produce paper vote records is a vulnerability, experts say.

How these 14 states are faring in the exodus from paperless voting

Since March, POLITICO has contacted election supervisors in jurisdictions that have any paperless voting machines — state officials in states with centralized processes, and county officials in states with county-run processes. We asked whether they are replacing those machines and, if so, where they are in that process. POLITICO will continue updating this information.

Delaware

Using paper
 STATE-BASED PROCESS | 708K REGISTERED VOTERS

Long one of a handful of states that relied entirely on paperless machines, Delaware was the first of those states to completely migrate to paper-based machines since POLITICO began tracking this process — though its choice was still controversial among security experts. In September, a state task force selected the ExpressVote XL from Election Systems & Software. The system is known as a “ballot-marking device,” a technology that security experts consider problematic because it relies on a computer to generate paper ballots, rather than having the voter mark the ballot directly.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Delaware

 SHOWN INTENT
 IN PROGRESS
 SECURED FUNDING
 SET TIMEFRAME
 REQUESTED PROPOSALS
 MACHINES SELECTED
 MACHINES PURCHASED
 MACHINES DEPLOYED

SWITCH TO PAPER COMPLETE

Delaware

WilmingtonDoverWilmingtonDover

Florida

64 out of 67 counties fully switched to paper
 COUNTY-BASED PROCESS | 13.4M REGISTERED VOTERS

Florida’s “hanging chads” debacle in the 2000 election prompted Congress to shower states with money to upgrade their voting machines more than 15 years ago — inadvertently fueling a security crisis when many jurisdictions opted for paperless electronic devices. While almost all Florida counties now use paper, a handful are still upgrading. (Note: Florida’s registered voter count refers only to active registered voters, which is the data the state provides.)

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Alachua

Baker

Bay

Bradford

Brevard

SHOW MORE

MiamiWest Palm BeachTallahasseeTampaOrlandoJacksonvilleMiamiWest Palm BeachTallahasseeTampaOrlandoJacksonville

Georgia

Planning to use paper
 STATE-BASED PROCESS | 6.94M REGISTERED VOTERS

Nowhere has voting security been as heated a topic lately as in Georgia. Gov. Brian Kemp spent years defending Georgia’s paperless machines when he was secretary of state, despite a scandal that forced him to sever ties with the university running the state’s elections. Under pressure from cybersecurity experts, Kemp created a commission to recommend new machines. That commission eventually ignored the warnings of its lone cyber expert and recommended that the state buy ballot-marking devices, the same type of system that Delaware bought.

In April, Kemp signed a bill authorizing the purchase of these devices. It initially appeared that Georgia would buy from ES&S, but the state later chose Dominion Voting Systems to provide the equipment. Kemp had faced criticism over his administration’s close ties to ES&S.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Georgia

 SHOWN INTENT
 IN PROGRESS
 SECURED FUNDING
 SET TIMEFRAME
 REQUESTED PROPOSALS
 MACHINES SELECTED
 MACHINES PURCHASED
 MACHINES DEPLOYED

Georgia

AtlantaAthensSavannahMaconAugustaColumbusAtlantaAthensSavannahMaconAugustaColumbus

Indiana

18 out of 92 counties fully switched to paper
 COUNTY-BASED PROCESS | 4.53M REGISTERED VOTERS

Counties in Indiana choose their own voting machines, but a recent state law requires them to buy paper-based systems by the end of 2029. The law also requires — and the state government is helping counties pay for — printer attachments that can produce a “voter-verified paper audit trail” for any new paperless machines that counties buy before then. Counties that told POLITICO they were buying printer attachments for at least some of their paperless machines are marked with an asterisk in the list below.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Adams

Allen

Bartholomew*

Benton

Blackford

SHOW MORE

IndianapolisGaryFort WayneEvansvilleIndianapolisGaryFort WayneEvansville

Kansas

87 out of 105 counties fully switched to paper
 COUNTY-BASED PROCESS | 1.82M REGISTERED VOTERS

The vast majority of Kansas counties have already been using paper-based voting machines, but some were still paperless in 2018. Of those counties, some have completed the replacement process, others are moving forward and still others have not responded to POLITICO’s questions.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Allen

Anderson

Atchison

Barber

Barton

SHOW MORE

WichitaTopekaKansas CityWichitaTopekaKansas City

Kentucky

5 out of 120 counties fully switched to paper
 COUNTY-BASED PROCESS | 3.43M REGISTERED VOTERS

Kentucky is one of the states with the most counties that still rely at least partly on paperless voting machines. Few of those counties have told POLITICO whether they plan to replace their machines. Some local election officials don’t believe experts who say the machines pose security risks.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Adair

Allen

NO RESPONSE YET

Anderson

NO RESPONSE YET

Ballard

NO RESPONSE YET

Barren

NO RESPONSE YET

SHOW MORE

LouisvilleLexingtonLouisvilleLexington

Louisiana

Reported intent to use paper
 STATE-BASED PROCESS | 2.95M REGISTERED VOTERS

Louisiana is one of three states that still rely entirely on paperless machines. But while Georgia and South Carolina have purchased replacement devices and plan to deploy them before the 2020 election, Louisiana’s replacement process has stalled. The state initially awarded a contract to the vendor Dominion Voting Systems, but ES&S protested that award, alleging that the contract standards were rigged so that only Dominion could meet them. A state official agreed and froze the contract. The state is still writing a new contract, a spokesman told POLITICO in July.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Louisiana

New OrleansLafayetteBaton RougeShreveportNew OrleansLafayetteBaton RougeShreveport

Mississippi

5 out of 82 counties fully switched to paper
 COUNTY-BASED PROCESS | 1.89M REGISTERED VOTERS

Many Mississippi counties have no intention of replacing their paperless machines, based on their responses to POLITICO’s survey. Only a handful of counties reported making any substantial progress toward replacing their machines. (Note: Mississippi’s registered voter count refers only to active registered voters, which is the data the state provides.)

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Adams

NO RESPONSE YET

Alcorn

NO RESPONSE YET

Amite

Attala

Benton

SHOW MORE

TupeloHattiesburgJacksonBiloxiTupeloHattiesburgJacksonBiloxi

New Jersey

2 out of 21 counties fully switched to paper
 COUNTY-BASED PROCESS | 5.88M REGISTERED VOTERS

New Jersey used to rely entirely on paperless machines, but a few of its counties have bought new equipment since the 2016 election. Still, almost all of its counties lack paper vote records.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Atlantic

NO RESPONSE YET

Bergen

Burlington

NO RESPONSE YET

Camden

Cape May

SHOW MORE

NewarkAtlantic CityTrentonNewarkAtlantic CityTrenton

Oklahoma

No plans to fully switch to paper reported
 STATE-BASED PROCESS | 2.13M REGISTERED VOTERS

Oklahoma touts itself as a fully paper-based state, but in fact it uses two types of voting machines. The vast majority of Oklahomans vote on paper ballots that are processed by optical scanners, which experts consider the most secure system, but voters with disabilities can use a type of device that only records their vote electronically. At the end of every election, this device generates a single piece of paper listing all votes cast on it — which is not the same as independent paper records of individual votes. (POLITICO confirmed this with two experts: Warren Stewart, who manages the voting technology database at the nonpartisan watchdog group Verified Voting, and Eddie Perez, a former product management lead at the vendor Hart InterCivic, which makes the device in question.)

Oklahoma’s election board challenged POLITICO’s initial description of this paperless device, repeatedly insisting that it produced paper records. Misha Mohr, a spokeswoman for the Board of Elections Secretary Paul Ziriax, said there were “no plans in place to replace it prior to the end of its life cycle.” Mohr did not respond when POLITICO explained the nuance about individual vote records described above.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Oklahoma

Oklahoma CityTulsaOklahoma CityTulsa

Pennsylvania

13 out of 67 counties fully switched to paper
 COUNTY-BASED PROCESS | 8.49M REGISTERED VOTERS

Pennsylvania is one of two swing states still using paperless machines, and they are far more common here than in Florida. Progress in the Keystone State has been scattershot; only a few counties have selected or purchased new machines. In July, Gov. Tom Wolf announced a $90 million bond issue to help counties with the replacement process. His decision followed an incident in which voting security became ensnared in partisan politics: The Republican-led Legislature passed an elections bill that included the funding, but Wolf vetoed the bill because it also eliminated straight-ticket voting.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Adams

Allegheny

Armstrong

Beaver

Bedford

SHOW MORE

PhiladelphiaErieHarrisburgAllentownPittsburghPhiladelphiaErieHarrisburgAllentownPittsburgh

South Carolina

Planning to use paper
 STATE-BASED PROCESS | 3.23M REGISTERED VOTERS

In June, South Carolina awarded a $51 million contract to ES&S for its ExpressVote machine. The state expects to completely replace its paperless machines with these devices before the 2020 election. South Carolina’s selection of ES&S was controversial, because the head of the state’s election commission participated in lavish trips paid for by ES&S as part of its now-defunct “advisory board.”

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

South Carolina

CharlestonColumbiaGreenvilleRock HillCharlestonColumbiaGreenvilleRock Hill

Tennessee

13 out of 95 counties fully switched to paper
 COUNTY-BASED PROCESS | 4.10M REGISTERED VOTERS

Tennessee is another partially paperless state making uneven progress. Most counties have not told POLITICO what they plan to do, but many of the ones that did respond said they didn’t plan to replace their paperless machines.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Anderson

Bedford

NO RESPONSE YET

Benton

NO RESPONSE YET

Bledsoe

NO RESPONSE YET

Blount

SHOW MORE

MemphisChattanoogaNashvilleKnoxvilleMemphisChattanoogaNashvilleKnoxville

Texas

120 out of 254 counties fully switched to paper
 COUNTY-BASED PROCESS | 15.6M REGISTERED VOTERS

Replacing paperless voting machines is a difficult task in the nation’s second-largest state, where the largest and smallest counties alike can’t afford to buy new equipment. Congress gave Texas $23.3 million as part of a nationwide grant program in 2018, but the cost of replacing machines in just the three largest counties (Harris, Dallas and Tarrant) would total $40 million to $50 million, according to Sam Taylor, a spokesman for the secretary of state’s office. Many Texas counties told POLITICO that, absent a federal or state mandate, they wouldn’t replace their paperless machines. Some have even bought new paperless machines. In May, the state Legislature adjourned without passing a bill that would have required paper records. State lawmakers won’t convene again until 2021.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Anderson County

27,491 registered voters
0.18% of registered voters in Texas
ALREADY PAPER

Anderson

Andrews

Angelina County

50,347 registered voters
0.32% of registered voters in Texas
NO RESPONSE YET

Angelina

NO RESPONSE YET

Aransas County

17,406 registered voters
0.11% of registered voters in Texas
NO PLANS TO FULLY SWITCH TO PAPER REPORTED

Aransas

Archer County

6,173 registered voters
0.04% of registered voters in Texas
NO PLANS TO FULLY SWITCH TO PAPER REPORTED

Archer

Delaware

Using paper
 STATE-BASED PROCESS | 708K REGISTERED VOTERS

Long one of a handful of states that relied entirely on paperless machines, Delaware was the first of those states to completely migrate to paper-based machines since POLITICO began tracking this process — though its choice was still controversial among security experts. In September, a state task force selected the ExpressVote XL from Election Systems & Software. The system is known as a “ballot-marking device,” a technology that security experts consider problematic because it relies on a computer to generate paper ballots, rather than having the voter mark the ballot directly.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Delaware

 SHOWN INTENT
 IN PROGRESS
 SECURED FUNDING
 SET TIMEFRAME
 REQUESTED PROPOSALS
 MACHINES SELECTED
 MACHINES PURCHASED
 MACHINES DEPLOYED

SWITCH TO PAPER COMPLETE

Delaware

WilmingtonDoverWilmingtonDover

Florida

64 out of 67 counties fully switched to paper
 COUNTY-BASED PROCESS | 13.4M REGISTERED VOTERS

Florida’s “hanging chads” debacle in the 2000 election prompted Congress to shower states with money to upgrade their voting machines more than 15 years ago — inadvertently fueling a security crisis when many jurisdictions opted for paperless electronic devices. While almost all Florida counties now use paper, a handful are still upgrading. (Note: Florida’s registered voter count refers only to active registered voters, which is the data the state provides.)

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Alachua

Baker

Bay

Bradford

Brevard

SHOW MORE

MiamiWest Palm BeachTallahasseeTampaOrlandoJacksonvilleMiamiWest Palm BeachTallahasseeTampaOrlandoJacksonville

Georgia

Planning to use paper
 STATE-BASED PROCESS | 6.94M REGISTERED VOTERS

Nowhere has voting security been as heated a topic lately as in Georgia. Gov. Brian Kemp spent years defending Georgia’s paperless machines when he was secretary of state, despite a scandal that forced him to sever ties with the university running the state’s elections. Under pressure from cybersecurity experts, Kemp created a commission to recommend new machines. That commission eventually ignored the warnings of its lone cyber expert and recommended that the state buy ballot-marking devices, the same type of system that Delaware bought.

In April, Kemp signed a bill authorizing the purchase of these devices. It initially appeared that Georgia would buy from ES&S, but the state later chose Dominion Voting Systems to provide the equipment. Kemp had faced criticism over his administration’s close ties to ES&S.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Georgia

 SHOWN INTENT
 IN PROGRESS
 SECURED FUNDING
 SET TIMEFRAME
 REQUESTED PROPOSALS
 MACHINES SELECTED
 MACHINES PURCHASED
 MACHINES DEPLOYED

Georgia

AtlantaAthensSavannahMaconAugustaColumbusAtlantaAthensSavannahMaconAugustaColumbus

Indiana

18 out of 92 counties fully switched to paper
 COUNTY-BASED PROCESS | 4.53M REGISTERED VOTERS

Counties in Indiana choose their own voting machines, but a recent state law requires them to buy paper-based systems by the end of 2029. The law also requires — and the state government is helping counties pay for — printer attachments that can produce a “voter-verified paper audit trail” for any new paperless machines that counties buy before then. Counties that told POLITICO they were buying printer attachments for at least some of their paperless machines are marked with an asterisk in the list below.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Adams

Allen

Bartholomew*

Benton

Blackford

SHOW MORE

IndianapolisGaryFort WayneEvansvilleIndianapolisGaryFort WayneEvansville

Kansas

87 out of 105 counties fully switched to paper
 COUNTY-BASED PROCESS | 1.82M REGISTERED VOTERS

The vast majority of Kansas counties have already been using paper-based voting machines, but some were still paperless in 2018. Of those counties, some have completed the replacement process, others are moving forward and still others have not responded to POLITICO’s questions.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Allen

Anderson

Atchison

Barber

Barton

SHOW MORE

WichitaTopekaKansas CityWichitaTopekaKansas City

Kentucky

5 out of 120 counties fully switched to paper
 COUNTY-BASED PROCESS | 3.43M REGISTERED VOTERS

Kentucky is one of the states with the most counties that still rely at least partly on paperless voting machines. Few of those counties have told POLITICO whether they plan to replace their machines. Some local election officials don’t believe experts who say the machines pose security risks.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Adair

Allen

NO RESPONSE YET

Anderson

NO RESPONSE YET

Ballard

NO RESPONSE YET

Barren

NO RESPONSE YET

SHOW MORE

LouisvilleLexingtonLouisvilleLexington

Louisiana

Reported intent to use paper
 STATE-BASED PROCESS | 2.95M REGISTERED VOTERS

Louisiana is one of three states that still rely entirely on paperless machines. But while Georgia and South Carolina have purchased replacement devices and plan to deploy them before the 2020 election, Louisiana’s replacement process has stalled. The state initially awarded a contract to the vendor Dominion Voting Systems, but ES&S protested that award, alleging that the contract standards were rigged so that only Dominion could meet them. A state official agreed and froze the contract. The state is still writing a new contract, a spokesman told POLITICO in July.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Louisiana

New OrleansLafayetteBaton RougeShreveportNew OrleansLafayetteBaton RougeShreveport

Mississippi

5 out of 82 counties fully switched to paper
 COUNTY-BASED PROCESS | 1.89M REGISTERED VOTERS

Many Mississippi counties have no intention of replacing their paperless machines, based on their responses to POLITICO’s survey. Only a handful of counties reported making any substantial progress toward replacing their machines. (Note: Mississippi’s registered voter count refers only to active registered voters, which is the data the state provides.)

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Adams

NO RESPONSE YET

Alcorn

NO RESPONSE YET

Amite

Attala

Benton

SHOW MORE

TupeloHattiesburgJacksonBiloxiTupeloHattiesburgJacksonBiloxi

New Jersey

2 out of 21 counties fully switched to paper
 COUNTY-BASED PROCESS | 5.88M REGISTERED VOTERS

New Jersey used to rely entirely on paperless machines, but a few of its counties have bought new equipment since the 2016 election. Still, almost all of its counties lack paper vote records.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Atlantic

NO RESPONSE YET

Bergen

Burlington

NO RESPONSE YET

Camden

Cape May

SHOW MORE

NewarkAtlantic CityTrentonNewarkAtlantic CityTrenton

Oklahoma

No plans to fully switch to paper reported
 STATE-BASED PROCESS | 2.13M REGISTERED VOTERS

Oklahoma touts itself as a fully paper-based state, but in fact it uses two types of voting machines. The vast majority of Oklahomans vote on paper ballots that are processed by optical scanners, which experts consider the most secure system, but voters with disabilities can use a type of device that only records their vote electronically. At the end of every election, this device generates a single piece of paper listing all votes cast on it — which is not the same as independent paper records of individual votes. (POLITICO confirmed this with two experts: Warren Stewart, who manages the voting technology database at the nonpartisan watchdog group Verified Voting, and Eddie Perez, a former product management lead at the vendor Hart InterCivic, which makes the device in question.)

Oklahoma’s election board challenged POLITICO’s initial description of this paperless device, repeatedly insisting that it produced paper records. Misha Mohr, a spokeswoman for the Board of Elections Secretary Paul Ziriax, said there were “no plans in place to replace it prior to the end of its life cycle.” Mohr did not respond when POLITICO explained the nuance about individual vote records described above.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Oklahoma

Oklahoma CityTulsaOklahoma CityTulsa

Pennsylvania

13 out of 67 counties fully switched to paper
 COUNTY-BASED PROCESS | 8.49M REGISTERED VOTERS

Pennsylvania is one of two swing states still using paperless machines, and they are far more common here than in Florida. Progress in the Keystone State has been scattershot; only a few counties have selected or purchased new machines. In July, Gov. Tom Wolf announced a $90 million bond issue to help counties with the replacement process. His decision followed an incident in which voting security became ensnared in partisan politics: The Republican-led Legislature passed an elections bill that included the funding, but Wolf vetoed the bill because it also eliminated straight-ticket voting.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Adams

Allegheny

Armstrong

Beaver

Bedford

SHOW MORE

PhiladelphiaErieHarrisburgAllentownPittsburghPhiladelphiaErieHarrisburgAllentownPittsburgh

South Carolina

Planning to use paper
 STATE-BASED PROCESS | 3.23M REGISTERED VOTERS

In June, South Carolina awarded a $51 million contract to ES&S for its ExpressVote machine. The state expects to completely replace its paperless machines with these devices before the 2020 election. South Carolina’s selection of ES&S was controversial, because the head of the state’s election commission participated in lavish trips paid for by ES&S as part of its now-defunct “advisory board.”

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

South Carolina

CharlestonColumbiaGreenvilleRock HillCharlestonColumbiaGreenvilleRock Hill

Tennessee

13 out of 95 counties fully switched to paper
 COUNTY-BASED PROCESS | 4.10M REGISTERED VOTERS

Tennessee is another partially paperless state making uneven progress. Most counties have not told POLITICO what they plan to do, but many of the ones that did respond said they didn’t plan to replace their paperless machines.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Anderson

Bedford

NO RESPONSE YET

Benton

NO RESPONSE YET

Bledsoe

NO RESPONSE YET

Blount

SHOW MORE

MemphisChattanoogaNashvilleKnoxvilleMemphisChattanoogaNashvilleKnoxville

Texas

120 out of 254 counties fully switched to paper
 COUNTY-BASED PROCESS | 15.6M REGISTERED VOTERS

Replacing paperless voting machines is a difficult task in the nation’s second-largest state, where the largest and smallest counties alike can’t afford to buy new equipment. Congress gave Texas $23.3 million as part of a nationwide grant program in 2018, but the cost of replacing machines in just the three largest counties (Harris, Dallas and Tarrant) would total $40 million to $50 million, according to Sam Taylor, a spokesman for the secretary of state’s office. Many Texas counties told POLITICO that, absent a federal or state mandate, they wouldn’t replace their paperless machines. Some have even bought new paperless machines. In May, the state Legislature adjourned without passing a bill that would have required paper records. State lawmakers won’t convene again until 2021.

Stage 1:
Intent

Stage 2:
In progress

Stage 3:
Done

Already
paper

No
plans

Anderson County

27,491 registered voters
0.18% of registered voters in Texas
ALREADY PAPER

Anderson

Andrews

Angelina County

50,347 registered voters
0.32% of registered voters in Texas
NO RESPONSE YET

Angelina

NO RESPONSE YET

Aransas County

17,406 registered voters
0.11% of registered voters in Texas
NO PLANS TO FULLY SWITCH TO PAPER REPORTED

Aransas

Archer County

6,173 registered voters
0.04% of registered voters in Texas
NO PLANS TO FULLY SWITCH TO PAPER REPORTED

Source:https://www.politico.com/interactives/2019/election-security-americas-voting-machines/

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